There are different types of diabetes some of which are more common to the others. The most common types of diabetes are Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, pre-diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes type 1 is common in children and Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that can occur during pregnancy.
Type 1 Diabetes
It is an autoimmune and an insulin dependent disease. Either caused by insulin resistance or insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas. The reason for the inefficiency of the pancreas might be the diseases like pancreatectomy, pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, medication effects and mutations in the genes. The resistance to insulin may arise due to hormonal diseases like Cushing syndrome, thyroid imbalance, acromegaly, and most genetic and environmental factors. In some, both these causes diabetes. In general, the root cause is anticipated to be the autoimmune responses of our immune system. India has shown 70,000 and above cases of diabetes mellitus 1 in 2015 itself. Although, the diabetes mellitus 1 may affect anyone irrespective of age, gender, region, creed. It is seen in all the ages not confined to children.
Assumed to be juvenile diabetes as many believed it is seen only in children. Amongst the millions living with diabetes, almost 5% have diabetes type 1. Its prevalence is considerably high. With 3-5% though not as diabetes mellitus. In India, it has been identified in the age group of 0-14 years children. Karnataka, Chennai, and Haryana have shown these statistics.
Symptoms and treatment:
Beta cells of pancreas get destroyed in diabetes mellitus 1 or get completely lost by pancreatic diseases. This anyways ends up in no insulin or less insulin availability.
- Excess urination and excess thirst as your body show dehydration. Your body gets rid off with the high deposits of minerals and also body fluids through frequent urination that leads to dehydration. This on other way catches up with hunger and thirst. This is seen in both men and women.
- Loss or gain of weight: the inefficiency to use the glucose levels in the blood and the calorie loss from the body by excessive dehydration results in the weight loss. Hence people with high blood sugar levels shed a lot of muscle.
- Fatigue and tiredness: both of them aren’t the same, yet they show up in diabetes feeling tired, helpless and getting exhausted for no reason happens due to the rise and falls of the blood sugar levels.
- Vision problems like diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma are seen.
- Diabetic neuropathy, cardiovascular diseases, dental problems diabetic ketoacidosis, etc are the major complications caused by diabetes mellitus 1.
Treating starts with prior testing with an A1C test, random and fasting blood sugar test. The most recommended of all is the insulin dosage, diet control with portions of carbs, protein and fat being regulated, physical activities, regular medication, and self-care, along with monitoring of blood sugar levels advised.
Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus 2 is popular among all types of diabetes. Of this, over 9% prevalence of diabetes mellitus 2 is seen in India with over 30 million people living with o. The scale of the spread is increasing rapidly. Rural areas show 3% of its people with diabetes with a prevalence of 8.6%. Diabetes mellitus 2 has become one of those established diseases in our health care. The complications and spread shows. Almost 73 million cases are seen in 2017 with 90 million likely to hit by 2019.
diabetes mellitus 2 has been fostered as the ailment of adults from ages, but it is diagnosed now in children with obesity and overweight. Diabetes as known is the disease accumulated blood sugar levels in the body and levels of insulin. This is a chronic disease with no specific cure. But as a lot of changes and control to revert it back or keep in control.
The signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus 2 develop slowly but show their prominence in each level.
Increased thirst and hunger: as been spoken earlier, the people with diabetes overgraze on food and have a lot of cravings. The depletion of energy and inefficiency to use the glucose available causes it. On the other hand, the accumulated blood glucose in the body needs to be eliminated. This urge for urination leads to excessive thirst as the body fluids and minerals are lost in the process.
Weight loss: The food that we splurge on is not taken up by the body. Indeed the fats and even the ketones deposits are burned off to provide the energy packets.
Delayed wound healing: the wounds, cuts, abscesses, sores, blisters, etc and all along with diabetic foot shows a great delay in wound healing. This not only aggravates the wound but also causes other complications, infections, amputations. The diabetic neuropathy and diabetic foot assured in diabetes mellitus 2 is a most complicated symptom.
Fatigue, lethargy, nausea, vision abnormalities like glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, inflammation and infections to the nerves of the nervous system. As in diabetic neuropathy, oversleep, gaining a sudden weight and also sores and undetermined infection. Women, in particular, gets affected by their reproductive system, organ issues, dryness of the vagina, UTI’s and in some women the conceiving gets complicated even.
The men are no exception to diabetes, dysfunction, infertility, less sperm life, and count. Bad habits like smoking and drinking worsen these sexual ailments.
Tests and symptoms: Hemoglobin A1C(HbA1C) test, fasting, and random glucose test and monitoring BMI values diagnose diabetes. Dietary plans, exercise, oral drugs, weight loss, regulated food habits, lifestyle changes, insulin pumps and drugs, supplements.
A symptom showed by type 1 diabetes mellitus. It on progression leads to the diabetes mellitus 2. The increasing blood sugar levels in prediabetes are not enough to be called as type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is considered a warning sign/ bell to the onset of diabetes mellitus 2. Its prevalence is almost 4% in India. Almost 76 million people in India shows this prediabetes.
Symptoms of pre-diabetics are not specific. It shows the classic symptoms like excess dehydration, high thirst, and hunger, tiredness and vision problems. Apart from these the discoloration of skin in certain areas of the body like neck, armpits, elbows, and knees turns dark. Genetic and environmental factors roll their way anyways.
Like in any other diabetes, the prediabetes also lets the glucose to accumulate in the bloodstream, as the insulin gets insufficient. Overweight or obesity, increasing fat deposition in the stomach, lifestyle and diet habits in increasing globalization, having no time to exercise and your age can draw the prediabetes. Women with PCOD’s and gestational diabetes are likely to be attacked with. Complications of prediabetes would be the heart and renal diseases and gangrene and necrosis bleeding to amputations, high BP and low BP, vision abnormalities and cholesterol levels.
Eating stipulated diet, sleep and blood sugar levels monitoring, exercising, losing weight and having an eye on your regular insulin levels may effectively stop its advancement into becoming diabetes mellitus 2. Your bad habits and harsh lifestyles and negligence are the only causes of this.
Diabetes on an overall rate imposes almost 80% prevalence in the Indian population. Gestational diabetes particularly confined in pregnant women is no less in the prevalence. It ranges from 17% in the south Indian women to 3.5% in north India. The highest spread is seen in Punjab with 35% and Lucknow shows 40% as per the NCBI.
Gestational diabetes leaves after the pregnancy, it has a main concern in affecting pregnancy health. It on progression causes the preterm births with overweighed babies making a cesarean section a compulsion. They have abundant chances of developing diabetes mellitus 2 after the pregnancy. The children born in this situation are likely to develop diabetes mellitus 2 in their future.
Women who have been already gone through gestational diabetes in their previous pregnancy, obese mothers, aged 28 and above years with a family history of diabetes mellitus 2 and high BMI, high BP and high glucose levels are likely to be affected.
Ever since diabetes has taken over the body, the typical signs show off, in hyperglycemia, with the high blood sugar levels for the longest time, excessive thirst and urination, dryness of mouth and fatigue are seen.
Complications of gestational diabetes affect the gestation, the body and also mother. Polyhydramnios with amniotic fluid.